â€œ[Islam]â€¦is a means of life, how will you live every time, everything you constantly do also itâ€™s a relationship between both you and Jesusâ€ (PLHIV)
Islam had been seen by individuals as a highly practical religion, governing their life, health insurance and tasks, illustrated in the reaction below:
â€œâ€¦. You can find countless guidance offered in Islam, either through the Qurâ€™an or perhaps the prophetic traditions on exactly how Muslims should take care of by themselves when it comes to wellness, in terms of diet, with regards to maintaining one healthierâ€¦â€ (Religious frontrunner)
This Islamic guidance, included and influenced attitudes to intimate tasks and life that is intimate.
Sex outside wedding
â€œOk, if you ask me, as much as I have always been worried, any intimate relationship outside the confines of wedding. Haram (forbidden). Meaning, sexual relationship should simply be restricted to appropriate wedding between a guy and a wife. Woman and man, sorry. Outside that, it is haramâ€ (spiritual frontrunner)
The response above, from a leader that is religious is typical of these participants interviewed who respect sexual intercourse outside of the confines of wedding as wholly forbidden in Islam.
But, there clearly was additionally, an acknowledgement amongst numerous interviewed, that sexual intercourse beyond your boundary of wedding, amongst Muslims in Malaysia happened; frequently regarded as a corollary of Western impact.
â€œ[Sex] without marriage it is haram. You simply cannot but right here it is normal, particularly for teens. Have actually a sense to use, we canâ€™t stop. â€ (PLHIV)
Though there had been a clear understanding amongst the individuals associated with the Islamic ideology that forbids intercourse outside wedding, there clearly was frequently a realisation that endeavouring to end such tasks could be useless.
Understandings of HIV
Most of the participants interviewed had some knowing of HIV but indicated that there is maybe not sufficient openness in regards to the condition since it ended up being connected with negative tasks, such as for example medication usage and sexual intercourse, that is forbidden in Islam.
â€œI think Islam is certainly not tooâ€¦ available about this illness, since when we discuss HIV, in Islam we mention. we do free intercourseâ€¦ and a thing that is bad (PLHIV MSM)
Hence, the individuals coping with HIV usually needed to interpret their diagnosis, in the social and framework that is religious of, illustrated below succinctly by a participant.
â€œOh I am good, can I view this as a sin being written by Jesus or do I need to regard this as a reminder for me personally to possess a beneficial health?â€ (PLHIV MSM)
HIV prevention in Malaysia
HIV prevention in Malaysia ended up being considered from the relatively that is whole, individuals commending the needle trade programme and pre-marital HIV assessment tests. Nonetheless there is a sentiment amongst some stakeholders that far more could possibly be done to cut back HIV transmission, such as for example advertising of condom use.
â€œâ€¦just to do easy practical general public wellness thingsâ€¦itâ€™s extremely, quite difficult in this nationâ€ (PLHIV)
Or at the very least, just undertaking basic public wellness measures to stop HIV had been obstructed by Islam one way or another.
â€œâ€¦I think there was a way that is long prevention in HIV helps with Malaysia and mostly when it comes to Muslim communities. Because we can’t assist because their spiritual responsibilities and their own health responsibilities; it is a different thingâ€¦â€ (PLHIV)
Usage of condoms
The matter of condom use had been contentious; the typical response ended up being that condoms had been noticed in a bad light and signified one thing immoral because it linked to additional marital sexual intercourse and individuals indicated that there were specific societal viewpoints of condoms.
â€œThey will always be taboo; condoms some can accept it, many people donâ€™tâ€¦â€ (PLHIV TG)
While spiritual leaders, generally speaking failed to concur with condom use amongst those away from wedlock. Condom usage had been allowed in sero-disconcordant partners beneath the doctrine of preventing damage, with Islamic ideology utilized make it possible for actors to reframe the issue, from an ethical someone to an disease that is infectious, articulated within the estimate below from the state through the Ministry of wellness:
â€œDisease avoidance, as under infection avoidance. therefore we donâ€™t go in to the ethical areas of it as health workersâ€ (MOH official)
Transgenderism, or changing oneâ€™s sex ended up being not recognised by spiritual leaders throughout the range, with just two genders current in Islam, male, female, or in infrequent cases â€˜Khunsaâ€™ (indeterminate intercourse). Individuals indicated that transgender ladies had been frequently marginalised, associated and stigmatised with intercourse work.
â€œThey perceive a transgender as perhaps not a healthy community and transgender is a residential district which will â€¦.link to intimate pursuits like intercourseâ€ (PLHIV MSM)
Also, some individuals thought that as a result of Islamic perception of transgender ladies, the combined team were driven underground and harder to achieve.
â€œIt poses huge challenges for HIV avoidance work due to the stigma and discrimination transgenders are driven underground and therefore are afraid in the future ahead to get into avoidance and care services from main-stream providersâ€ (PLHIV)
Guys who possess sex with Guys
Individuals had been clear that homosexuality and guys having intercourse with men ended up being forbidden in Islam but existed in Malay society. As a result MSM had been regarded as being a tough to attain team to gain access to to produce HIV prevention services to.
Additionally there clearly was a sentiment by many people individuals that there have been measures that are insufficient in location to target prevention amongst MSM and also this ended up being specially obvious into the not enough savings dedicated to facilitate the team.
â€œThe federal government does not provide capital, specially for instance, within our community for MSM, they donâ€™t tend to provide capital to usâ€ (PLHIV)
Authority and law
The specific situation in Malaysia is complicated further by the existence of a double appropriate system, penal legislation and Islamic legislation (Shariah), which will not supply the kind of appropriate system and allowing environment that is considered most readily useful practice according to UN instructions.
â€œâ€¦People keep asking why canâ€™t the us government replace the legislation; it is maybe not an easy processâ€ (MOH Officer)
Though some stakeholders see the appropriate system, which considers it an unlawful offense to take part in intercourse work, cross dressing and males doing intercourse with guys, does hinder usage of solutions and HIV prevention; the Ministry of Health deems that provision of solutions aren’t impeded and therefore such guidelines are seldom enforced in a meaningful method.